N°63, 2019/1 – Varia
By studying a series of mobilizations initiated by French Mutual Benefit societies against the European Union ‘Insurance’ Directives between the 1990s and the 2010s, we seek to identify the interaction between different factors likely to explain the failure of corporate attempts to promote their interests at the European level. The lack of strategic resources explains the difficulty faced by the actors under study in reaching the agenda. But once this gap filled, cognitive factors and their incapacity to legitimate the values underlying their demands to the European Commission eventually explain the failure of their mobilization.
In the Languedoc-Roussillon region, mass-produced table wines have given way to varietal ones. This article articulates public policies, economic and collective strategies in order to question their hegemonic development. The analysis shows that it is due to the modification of sectoral, national and then Community instruments of public action, on which economic and collective strategies depend structurally. Over a long period of time, the instrumentation took part in establishing an order, then reversed it: the dominance of both production and unions for table wines has changed dramatically, to the benefit of varietal wines.
This article proposes to examine, through a comparative approach, territorial systems in Europe, focusing on the local and regional levels, while leaving aside the study of intermediate levels, given their greater rarity. In accordance with the “logic of contrast” that innervates the comparative approach, it is possible to note the persistent diversity of the major systems of administrative organization of States, inscribed in national historical traditions, which resists any spirit of modeling. Although the variety of national situations observed pre-condemns the hypothesis of a European model of administration, it cannot obstruct any idea of concordance or convergence. These similarities may concern the reform processes, without necessarily bringing about a convergence of results. Although they are subject, if necessary, to a logic of enforcement, they are often of a similar but independent resolution logic.
The European Union (EU) is traditionally presented as an exporter of standards, promoting and spreading its regional integration model beyond its borders. Central America offers an emblematic case where the EU has historically developed close relations and strong cooperation. In this article, we question the idea that the EU has exported its model to Central America from a detailed examination of the type of standards disseminated. Moreover, this questioning raises a central question: what has the EU really disseminated and what have been the effects of this diffusion? This article also contributes to revisiting one of the characteristic features of this global actor, the EU, through a political sociology approach to interregionalism analyzing European external action vis-à-vis Central America and more specifically the Central American Integration System (SICA).