N° 22, 2007/2 – Security Outside the EU. New Territories, New Challenges

PE22Security Outside the EU. New Territories, New Challenges

edited by Sandra Lavenex, Frédéric Merand, 2007/2 (n°22)


Sandra Lavenex, Frédéric Merand – New Security Challenges and External Governance of the European Union


Christian Franck – The Emergence of a Global Actor: The Geographic Expansion and Institutional Reinforcement of the External Activities of the European Union

Three developments have transformed the European Union into a global actor: the accumulation of external competencies, from trade to CFSP-ESDP and to the external aspects of JHA cooperation; a geographical expansion from the regional to the global; and institutional and administrative developments in matters of external “governance.” After presenting a panoramic view of the geographical expansion of significant external agreements and the strengthening of the EU’s institutional apparatus, this paper concludes with a discussion of European power.


Mario Telo – The EU as an incipient civilian power. A systemic approach

This article focuses on how to understand and conceptualize the EU’s regional and global role and its international identity. It does so by looking at what the EU actually contributes to global governance and the empirical implications of the notion of civilian power. Different scenarios are developed in regard to the impact of the evolution of the world system on the EU’s external role. 


Elsa Tulmets – Policy adaptation from the enlargement to the neighbourhood policy : a way to improve the EU’s external capabilities ?

This article argues that the experience of the Eastern enlargement of the European Union (policy ideas, philosophy, new policy mode inspired by the open method of coordination and assistance policy) represented a basis to launch the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in 2003. In showing that the ENP corresponds to a process of adaptation of the EU’s internal policies to the external context, via the experience of enlargement, sheds new light on the debate over the nature of the EU’s external power and capabilities on an international stage. 


Nicole Wichmann – Promoting the rule of law in the european neighbourhood policy – strategic or normative power ?

This article scrutinises the EU’s rule of law promotion in the ENP countries in Moldova, Ukraine and in the Mediterranean countries, Morocco and Tunisia. The author argues that there are variations in policy outcomes across policy initiatives owing to the contested nature of the policy objective and the differences in the policy making process. She draws on bureaucratic politics to make the argument. In conclusion she observes that the observed power struggles make it difficult to classify the EU either as a strategic or a normative power. Empirical illustrations are drawn from the EU’s anti-drugs, anti-corruption and judicial reform policies 


Alessia Biava – European Union Activities and the Challenge to the Security of Its Energy Supply

The European Union (EU) currently imports around 50% of the energy it consumes. The security of energy supply has recently become one of the priorities of the EU’s agenda. Faced with this challenge, the EU is developing an integrated approach based, on the one hand, on internal policies aimed at promoting energy efficiency, renewable sources and an internal energy market, and, on the other hand, on external policies aimed at diversifying the energy supply and creating a regulated framework in the context of EU external relations. The purpose of this article is to analyze and assess these actions. Moreover it shows the extent to which, faced with this non-conventional threat, the EU plays a role as a sui generis actor, transposing on the international scene its model based on dialogue, cooperation and constructive interdependence.


Haingo Mireille Rakotonirina – The Dialogue between the EU and Africa since Cotonou: The Case of the Africa Peace Facility (AFP)

Inter-regionalism has been one of the main axes of EU foreign policy and Africa its privileged experimental ground. The purpose of this paper is to give a dynamic account of the principles, structures and mechanisms underlying the intensification and densification of the interregional dialogue since the signing of the Cotonou Agreement to the creation of the Africa Peace Facility. 


Lorenzo Gabrielli – The Migration-Related Security Issues in the Relations between the European Union and Africa. An Analytical Test

Relations between the European Union and Africa are being shaped by the issue of migration, which is increasingly approached as a “security” problem. At the same time, the progressive internationalisation of European immigration policies produces a dynamic of externalisation of control towards the African continent. In the unbalanced framework of Euro-African relations, the delegation of control over migratory flows is based on the conclusion of trade agreements and on development aid concessions, both of which are used as pressure instruments. The most evident result of this dynamic is the creation of a series of buffer zones on the African continent vis-à-vis migratory flows.


Stéphane Pfister – The Civil Aspect of European Security and Defense Policy: Ambiguities and the Potential for a “Civil Management of Crises”

Since 1999, the European security and defence policy has been at the centre of many debates and questions. Oddly enough, observers have neglected the European Union’s civilian capabilities for crisis management and focused instead on its military aspects. And yet the civilian dimension of ESDP is a novel and promising tool for responding more efficiently to contemporary security challenges. As the EU is developing its “non military” dimension in the framework of the Civilian Headline Goal 2008, this article seeks to clarify the poorly understood concept of “civilian crisis management.”




Aude-Claire Fourot – Governance and Local Social Apprenticeship: The Establishment of a Community Initiative Program in Paris


Selma Bendjaballah – The European Parliament: A Study Based on the Criteria of the United States House of Representatives


Critical Reading

HOERBER As the title indicates, this book is a short introduction to Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The individual chapters are well written, succinct and to the point, and for the most part they eschew academic jargon, focusing on providing relevant information in a form easily accessible to the layman. As a result, the material necessarily contributes little at expert level to the ongoing…